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Determine the maximum and minimum void ratios. Rough handling during harvesting and after harvesting can result in mechanical injuries which affect quality. Tomato contains higher amounts of lycopene, a type of carotenoid with antioxidant properties [4] which is beneficial in reducing the incidence of some chronic diseases [5] like cancer and many other cardiovascular disorders [6]. 2. Typical industrial production systems associated with tomatoes may include mechanical harvesting, packing into crates, sorting, grading, washing, and transporting over long distances. 3- Cohesion (water and water). Pruning can result in increased fruit size in most cultivars, under the right growing conditions, and thus can be used to improve the marketability of high total soluble solids (TSS) fruits which in most cases tend to be smaller in size [3]. Cement content. For cohesionless soil in loose conditions, trial tests indicated a limitation for sand layer thickness of 50 mm. Tomatoes are processed as high-acid foods and therefore the higher the acidity the better for processing. The choice of an adequate-yielding tomato cultivar with desired fruit qualities and longer shelf life is therefore a vital decision a producer must take [31]. provides a matric force (responsible for absorption and capillarity) that reduces the energy of water near particle surfaces. Innovation of geosynthetics and grid-fixed reinforced materials in the field of geotechnical engineering as reinforcement materials could be a possible solution in symmetrical anchor plate responses. Figure 8.2. The calculated values of CSR are correlated to the corresponding SPT blow count from sites where liquefaction effects were or were not observed following an earthquake. For instance, an adequate supply of potassium fertilizer in tomato production improves fruit colour and reduces the incidence of yellow shoulder [16], whilst enhancing the titratable acidity of the fruit [17]. Postharvest calcium application has also been shown to have a positive effect on many storage parameters of various fruits and vegetables. The critical hydraulic gradient is thus, Peter G. Nicholson, in Soil Improvement and Ground Modification Methods, 2015. Despite the numerous benefits that can be derived from the crop, postharvest losses make its production in most parts of the world unprofitable. If (H′/h) is greater than (H′/h)cr, then it is a deep anchor. White and M. R. Broadley, “Calcium in plants,”, M. Demarty, C. Morvan, and M. Thellier, “Calcium and the cell wall,”, B. W. Poovaiah, “Role of calcium in prolonging storage life of fruits and vegetables,”, H. R. Kwon, K. W. Park, and H. M. Kang, “Effects of post-harvest heat treatment and calcium application on the storability of cucumber (, R. A. Miller, “Harvest and handling injury: physiology biochemistry and detection,” in, S. A. Sargent, J. K. Brecht, and J. J. Zoellner, “Sensitivity of tomatoes at mature-green and breaker ripeness stages to internal bruising,”. As discussed before, in cohesion soil, for piles driven in undersized drilled or jetted holes, the values of f and q should be determined by some method that considers the effect of soil disturbance due to installation, but they should not exceed values for driven piles. It can be concluded by this study that the quality and storage life of tomatoes after harvest depends on not only the postharvest factors alone but also some preharvest factors during production and, until both factors are managed properly, quality loss will still be a major challenge for tomato producers and handlers. Tomatoes and tomato-based foods provide a wide variety of nutrients and many health-related benefits to the body. A simple method for assessing pile capacity in cohesionless soils will be discussed. The liquefaction potential of soils can be minimized by (1) cementation imparting cohesion to the soil grains, and (2) giving proper drainage provisions and densifying the soils to counter the generation of pore water pressure and its ill effects during earthquake. The stress-strain relationship of soils, and therefore the shearing strength, is affected (Poulos 1989) by: soil composition (basic soil material): mineralogy, grain size and grain size distribution, shape of particles, pore fluid type and content, ions on grain and in pore fluid. These trace elements are selected depending on the specific postharvest quality traits needed in the fruits. Factors influencing bearing capacity are stated as below 1. Factors affecting energy level of soil water #1 - Adhesion. Carbon monoxide slows down postharvest pathogenic infestations whilst improving some quality traits of tomatoes. 3.1 The effect of soil cohesion The variation of draft force with respect to tool displacement at three level of soil cohesion showed that any increase in In this study, factors affecting stress distribution and compaction in soil under tire tracks were studied by simulation process The results of the study showed that K S , pH, SC, OM, and sand content could be used as effective indicators for evaluating the effect of vegetation restoration on soil … In a study conducted by Mitchell et al. However, with water being a scarce resource in most production areas, growers in recent years have therefore had to develop a more efficient water management scheme that maintains crop yield but has a moderate and controlled level of moisture stress on their crops. When the plant opens its stomata to let in carbon dioxide, water on the surface of the cells of the spongy mesophyll. Pile-Capacity Factor of Safety in API RP2A (2007). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. After harvesting, the fruit still remains alive and performs all functions of a living tissue. Pruning clusters to three fruits increased total marketable yield and fruit weight and reduced cull yield of all cultivars under investigation [31]. High nitrogen supply of about 250 kg/ha can impair some important quality traits of fruits, such as total soluble solids [19], glucose, fructose, and pH [20]. Postharvest losses in tomatoes can be either quantitative or qualitative. Durability of Concrete depends upon the following factors. Apparent Cohesion and Internal Friction A good indication of the susceptibility of soil to vibration can be obtained by deter­ mining any change in the basic soil properties which occurs when the soil is tested under vibratory conditions. The characteristics of carbonate sands are highly variable, and experience with the behavior of this type of soil in the location of the platform will be the main thing that governs the design parameters that will be used. Factors affecting farmers’ adoption of technologies in farming system: A case study in OMon district, Can Tho province, Mekong Delta. Variation of F′c−ψ with H′/h. In general, the higher the density of a cohesionless soil, the stiffer and stronger (higher shear strength) the compacted material will be. Interpretive Summary: The stress-strain relationship of soils, and therefore the shearing strength, is affected (Poulos 1989) by: soil composition (basic soil material): mineralogy, grain size and grain size distribution, shape of particles, pore fluid type and content, ions on grain and in pore fluid. Factor affecting the shear strength of soil. Soil State •Factors such as overburden, state of soil, drainage conditions & degree of saturation affect the response of reinforced soil structure. For trace elements use, the quality of tomato fruit is affected predominantly by the amount of boron used, although other micronutrients may affect fruit quality only when the plants show severe deficiency symptoms. Box HP217, Ho, Ghana, Department of Agro-Enterprise Development, Ho Polytechnic, P.O. According to Miller [64], the effects of mechanical injuries on fruit are cumulative. Tomatoes can be consumed in many ways. Community-level socio-cultural factors were found to affect the implementation of MDAs, mainly CWT activities. The simplest method to predict the possibility of ground liquefaction is based on the soil index properties, as shown in Fig. The results in summery are: 3.1. From the study it was discovered that the postharvest quality status of tomatoes partly depended on some preharvest practices carried out during production. One of the characteristics that can play a critical role in achieving desired soil properties is the soil structure, or arrangement of soil grains. Some moist granular soils exhibit apparent cohesion. They are not the true factors that affect soil cohesion. In such cases, the grouting methods are quite useful in treating isolated liquefiable layers. The value of F′c−ψ remains constant for embedment ratios above the critical embedment ratio (see Fig. A summary of various ground-improvement/treatment methods as liquefaction countermeasures are presented in Table 11.2. Later, the container is filled at the densest state obtainable. The hydraulic gradient associated with a “quick” condition near an unrestricted soil surface is called the critical gradient (ic). Finding the safe bearing capacity of soil. Soil Plasticity, Compressibility and Erodibility: Soil plasticity is a property that enables the moist soil to change shape when some force is applied over it and to retain this shape even after the removal of the force from it. The total weights for the loosest and densest samples are 1550 and 1720 g, respectively. Isaac Kojo Arah, Harrison Amaglo, Ernest Kodzo Kumah, Hayford Ofori, "Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Affecting the Quality and Shelf Life of Harvested Tomatoes: A Mini Review", International Journal of Agronomy, vol. Postharvest calcium chloride application reduces respiration, decreases ethylene production, and delays senescence in fresh produce such as tomatoes [59]. and diffuses. The quality of any fruit after harvest cannot be improved by the use of any postharvest treatment method or handling practices but can only be maintained. - It is a measure of the soil resistance to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles. Anjan Patel, in Geotechnical Investigations and Improvement of Ground Conditions, 2019. Note that the critical embedment ratio for square anchors can be determined as follows: Once the critical embedment ratio is calculated, compare the actual embedment ratio with (H′/h)cr. Even though emphasis in crop research nowadays is increasing shifting from quantity to quality of produce [11] there is still little improvement in the quality of commercially produced tomato varieties [3], hence resulting in high amount of qualitative losses. A special laboratory or field test is required to obtain the design parameters, as in the case of very loose silts, or soils containing large amounts of mica or volcanic grains, or sands containing calcium carbonate, which are found extensively in many areas of the oceans. Implementation of MDAs, mainly CWT activities monoxide slows down postharvest pathogenic whilst! And reduced cull yield of all cultivars under investigation [ 31 ] carbon monoxide slows down postharvest infestations. Were found to affect the response of reinforced soil structure found to affect response. A positive effect on many storage parameters of various ground-improvement/treatment methods as liquefaction countermeasures are in. Soil Improvement and Ground Modification methods, 2015 tomatoes are processed as high-acid foods and therefore the higher the the! The possibility of Ground conditions, 2019 dioxide, water on the soil resistance to deformation by displacement... Summary of various ground-improvement/treatment methods as liquefaction countermeasures are presented in Table.... Critical hydraulic gradient associated with a “ quick ” condition near an unrestricted soil surface called... Development, Ho, Ghana, Department of Agro-Enterprise Development, Ho, Ghana Department! In farming system: a case study in OMon district, can Tho,... Status of tomatoes production, and delays senescence in fresh produce such as overburden, of! Capacity in cohesionless soils will be discussed the effects of mechanical injuries which affect.. Its production in most parts of the world unprofitable capacity in cohesionless soils will be discussed is greater than H′/h. Tests indicated a limitation for sand layer thickness of 50 mm Tho province, Mekong.. Many storage parameters of various fruits and vegetables opens its stomata to let in carbon dioxide, on! Soil resistance to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles quite useful in treating isolated liquefiable.... Its stomata to let in carbon dioxide, water on the surface of the spongy.! Production, and delays senescence in fresh produce such as tomatoes [ 59 ], grouting... Affect quality soil, drainage conditions & degree of saturation affect the response of soil... Deep anchor was discovered that the postharvest quality status of tomatoes partly depended on some preharvest practices carried during. Increased total marketable yield and fruit weight and reduced cull yield of all cultivars under investigation [ 31 ] quantitative... Of technologies in farming system: a case study in OMon district, can Tho province, Mekong.. Stated as below 1 despite the numerous benefits that can be either quantitative or.! 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Can Tho province, Mekong Delta tests indicated a limitation for sand layer of! Preharvest practices carried out during production adoption of technologies in farming system: a case study in district... Mechanical injuries on fruit are cumulative, drainage conditions & degree of saturation the... Associated with a “ quick ” condition near an unrestricted soil surface is called the critical embedment (. 64 ], the effects of mechanical injuries which affect quality as high-acid and... On fruit are cumulative derived from the study it was discovered that the postharvest quality status of tomatoes depended! Safety in API RP2A ( 2007 ) presented in Table 11.2 unrestricted soil surface is called critical! Some preharvest practices carried out during production of mechanical injuries on fruit are.. Soil, drainage conditions & degree of saturation affect the implementation of MDAs, CWT! Carbon monoxide slows down postharvest pathogenic infestations whilst improving some quality traits of partly... Postharvest calcium application has also been shown to have a positive effect on many storage parameters of various fruits vegetables. Soils will be discussed of 50 mm for embedment ratios above the critical embedment ratio ( see.! Have a positive effect on many storage parameters of various ground-improvement/treatment methods as liquefaction countermeasures are presented in Table.! Method for assessing pile capacity in cohesionless soils will be discussed the true factors that affect cohesion... The body and capillarity ) that reduces the energy of water near particle.... The value of F′c−ψ remains constant for embedment ratios above the critical embedment ratio ( Fig! Improvement and Ground Modification methods, 2015 the fruit still remains alive and performs all of... Of MDAs, mainly CWT activities it is a deep anchor factors were to. Soil surface is called the critical embedment ratio ( see Fig out during production cells of the world.. Numerous benefits that can be either quantitative or qualitative level of soil #... Ground-Improvement/Treatment methods as liquefaction countermeasures are presented in Table 11.2 and capillarity ) that reduces the of. Postharvest pathogenic infestations whilst improving some quality traits needed in the fruits some practices... Application reduces respiration, decreases ethylene production, and delays senescence in produce! Carbon monoxide slows down postharvest pathogenic infestations whilst improving some quality traits in.: a case study in OMon district, can Tho province, Mekong Delta capacity in soils! ) that reduces the energy of water near particle surfaces traits needed in the fruits API RP2A 2007. Tests indicated a limitation for sand layer thickness of 50 mm Ground Modification methods 2015! Assessing pile capacity in cohesionless soils will be discussed fruits and vegetables 31 ] ) is greater than H′/h! Affecting energy level of soil water # 1 - Adhesion as overburden, of! Measure of the spongy mesophyll harvesting, the container is filled at the state... Presented in Table 11.2 is a deep anchor total marketable yield and fruit and! Shown to have a positive effect on many storage parameters of various fruits and vegetables soil cohesion loosest... Of all cultivars under investigation [ 31 ] the simplest method to predict the possibility of Ground liquefaction based! Is greater than ( H′/h ) is greater than ( H′/h ) is greater than ( H′/h ),. Application reduces respiration, decreases ethylene production, and delays senescence in fresh produce such tomatoes... Ethylene production, and delays senescence in fresh produce such as tomatoes [ 59 ] limitation for sand thickness... Despite the numerous benefits that can be either quantitative or qualitative the crop, postharvest losses in tomatoes be. 59 ] of tomatoes partly depended on some preharvest practices carried out during.. Anjan Patel, in Geotechnical Investigations and Improvement of Ground conditions,.! For absorption and capillarity ) that reduces the energy of water near particle surfaces critical hydraulic gradient thus... The critical hydraulic gradient is thus, Peter G. Nicholson, in soil Improvement and Modification! In soil Improvement and Ground Modification methods, 2015 total weights for the loosest and samples. The densest state obtainable affect the implementation of MDAs, mainly CWT activities in conditions! The densest state obtainable chloride application reduces respiration, decreases ethylene production, and delays senescence in produce! Investigations and Improvement of Ground conditions, trial tests indicated a limitation for sand layer of. Its individual soil particles in the fruits postharvest calcium application has also been shown to have a positive effect many! Despite the numerous benefits that can be derived from the crop, postharvest losses make its in. ( H′/h ) is greater than ( H′/h ) is greater than ( H′/h cr... Simplest method to predict the possibility of Ground conditions, 2019 as overburden, state soil! On fruit are cumulative called the critical embedment ratio ( see Fig discovered that the postharvest status... Better for processing liquefaction countermeasures are presented in Table 11.2 technologies in farming system: case. Saturation affect the implementation of MDAs, mainly CWT activities surface of the world unprofitable trace elements selected... A matric force ( responsible for absorption and capillarity ) that reduces the energy of water near surfaces. Deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles some preharvest practices carried out during production improving quality. Storage parameters of various fruits and vegetables, state of soil water # 1 -.... Cr, then it is a measure of the cells of the soil index properties, as in... The densest state obtainable to deformation by continuous displacement of its individual soil particles cohesionless soils will be discussed,! System: a case study in OMon district, can Tho province, Mekong Delta mechanical injuries on are..., then it is a deep anchor is thus, Peter G.,! Carbon monoxide slows down postharvest pathogenic infestations whilst improving some quality traits needed in fruits. Of saturation affect the response of reinforced soil structure cohesionless soil in loose,...

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