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The “run” operator is similar to the “let” operator in terms of accepting a return value that is different from the object on which the scope function is being applied to. So let's forget about it also let apply run for a second. Now instead of needing the full date, let’s say we just need to know the day of the year. But with run(), the result returned is the result of the code block, so we’d shuffle that call to get(): These two dimensions - context and result - can form a nice little grid that can make it easy to remember what’s what: Following the first letter of each, you get the acronym “LARA”. How should we choose between these two? Travelopy - travel discovery and journal LuaPass - offline password manager WhatIDoNow - a public log of things I am working on now let is one of Kotlin's Scope functions which allow you to execute a code block within the context of an object. Supported and developed by JetBrains. If we look at T.run and T.let, both functions are similar except for one thing, the way they accept the argument. So apply() falls under the second case - this refers to the Calendar instance. If so, you’ll want one of the functions on the right-hand column, because they return the receiver object when you’re done. Common. Here’s how we can update that last code listing to do that. The result returned by the function can be one of two things: Here’s the apply() example again, but this time with the type of date indicated explicitly: As you can see, the result of calling apply() is a Calendar - it’s the same instance as the receiver object that we called apply() on. 1: Just use […] Let’s also apply run with Kotlin scope functions. Although we might be using this in our code, we hope that our article has given you a clearer way of understanding and implementing the right scoped function in the right place. Let's assume Apply is a person name, I can make a grammatically correct English sentence with them: it also let Apply run. On the other hand, if your code block is calling lots of functions on the receiver, you get better signal-to-noise ratio by using one of the two functions from the bottom row - either run() or apply(), because you won’t need to specify the object at all. Are we using them correctly? fun returns “Result” — let, run, with when we use the above functions, you can use the object within the block and returns whatever the last line of the block gives as a result. Because the scope functions are all quite similar in nature, it's important to understand the differences between them. Build final native binaries. Let's say you have a pug. From the above code snippet, we can see that although “let” operation is performed on a Person object, the output of the code is a string value and not the Person object. We can press the button here or you can select Run and choose Run App in the menu. Now, let us run the Android Application, and see how the tint color affected the ImageView. They differ on two dimensions: The first dimension is the context of the code block. You probably have seen some of them in various tutorials or even used them already. With the help of these functions ( let , run , with , apply and also ),we can operate on objects within a certain context. ... or let it run unconfined. When I started learning Kotlin, I made a little spreadsheet that helped me understand and memorize the differences between Kotlin’s standard library functions let, with, run, apply and also. Here's the code for doing this. Intention of Kotlin's "also apply let run with" One of the things that puzzled me when I started with ... Kotlin and Java EE: Part One - From Java to Kotlin. Let's start with a simple requirement. Kotlin defines a few of extension functions like with() and apply() in its Standard.kt file. Hence, a “ run ” operator can be used to initialize an object and return the result of it. Scope functions. That’s all about the Scoped functions in Kotlin. If you were to decompile this, you’d notice that the function is inlined - there’s no overhead of a method invocation. 暖心芽 (WIP) ️ - reminder of hope, warmth, thoughts and feelings. Let’s see the same example, but this time using also(): This time, since we’re using also() instead of apply(), we had to prefix the set() calls with it. Your code block might need to reference the existing this scope. Run tests. Giới thiệu. Note: It is not necessary to write “return@let”. 1.0. What is the importance of each scoped function? Yeah. Those of us who have used Kotlin for development have most likely encountered the set of useful functions from Standard.kt. So let's forget about it also let apply run for a second. We have many scenarios where we should return an instance of Intent or an Alert Dialog etc., by adding specific attributes to them. Here’s an example of apply(): In this code listing, you’ll notice a few things: These three characteristics actually apply to all four functions, not just apply(). For example: The above code also behaves the same way since the last statement is a non-assignment statement. Những function này rất hữu ích giúp cho ta … Extension functions have a receiver - that is, an object upon which that extension function is invoked. Kotlin’s standard library includes some often-used scope functions that are so abstract that even those who have been programming in Kotlin for a while can have a hard time keeping them straight. It also comes with an efficient way of working with background threads, main threads, and dedicated I/O threads. a block of code, in the context of an object. Pixtory App (Alpha) - easily organize photos on your phone into a blog. There are five of them: let, run, with, apply, and also. 1.0. There are five scoped functions in Kotlin: let, run, with, also and apply. This can be very helpful if we have nested let blocks, and since all let blocks refer to the context of their respective objects as “it”, it might be difficult for the compiler which objects we are referring to: We Know how lengthy the code would be to perform a null check in Java. TL;DR obj.let{it}, obj.run{this}, with(obj){this} - returns result of last line obj.also{it}, obj.apply{this} - returns the same object. These functions make your code easier to read and more concise. COVID-19 - data, chart, information & news. Publish a multiplatform library. One of the small but loved is the scoped functions. JS. Hence, a “run” operator can be used to initialize an object and return the result of it. Run tests. In Kotlin, scope functions allow you to execute a function, i.e. Or, Are you completely new to this topic and want to understand these scoped functions? Kotlin has some really cool extension functions as part of the Standard library. But before going through these examples, let’s consider a Model class “Person”. Question or issue of Kotlin Programming: In Kotlin, I can run code if an object is not null like this: data?.let { ... // execute this block if not null } but how can I execute a block of code if the object is null? If you have a device connected and you’ve set it up for development, then it’ll show up here and you can click OK and it’ll run on your device. To proceed with Kotlin, one should have the basic knowledge of the programming language, Java. Let’s take the following example: So our aim is to fetch the values in the ArrayList whose length is greater than 3. pug analogy, part I There's a famous saying "to begin learning is to begin to forget". .also () .let () .apply () .run () They are magical because they can perform some Kotlin magics and at the same time greatly resemble English words. Kotlin coroutines let you convert callback-based code to sequential code. 07/09/19 by Frank Rosner . I think it might be of help to other people also, so here it is: Subtle differences between Kotlin's with(), apply(), let(), also(), and run() June 3, 2017 in programming. Let’s see some ordinary code that does not use scoping functions, first: The following code snippet is equivalent to the one above, except that it uses with() sco… Their usages range from but are not exclusive to initialization and mapping. Kotlin is being officially used in Android development, and every Android developers are probably busy picking up Kotlin. That includes me. Now, this is an interesting case. Thanks to the resemblance, I even tried forming sentence using them. ... Kotlin™ is protected under the Kotlin Foundation and licensed under the Apache 2 license. Publish a multiplatform library. Refer Kotlin Android – ImageView Example to create an Android Application with just an ImageView in LinearLayout. We can also represent the summary of choosing between the scoped functions as a flowchart. So what happens if we don’t return anything in the “let” block? Lets-Plot-Kotlin in Datalore notebooks Datalore is an online data science notebook by JetBrains. Supported and developed by JetBrains. a block of code, in the context of an object. Native. Let’s suppose we did not use the “also” operator in the above case, we should have written the code as: Although this gives the same output, the chain in which the operations are being held is broken and that would not make a good readable code and hence “also” operator is very useful in this case. With the help of these functions (let, run, with, apply and also),we can operate on objects within a certain context. So how do they differ? Ok, I just made that up. How can we make the best use of it? Pixtory App (Alpha) - easily organize photos on your phone into a blog. Kotlin coroutines allow you to convert your async callback-style function calls into sequential function calls. Thanks to the resemblance, I even tried forming sentence using them. I think it might be of help to other people also, so here it is: All scope functions have a receiver (this), may have an argument (it) and may return a value. we can see that the context of the object referred to as “this” is a nullable type of Person. The second dimension is the return value. To execute code only in the context of a specific object, without needing to access the object based on its name, Kotlin offers 5 scope functions: let, apply, with, run and also. The second advantage is it easily helps in providing null checks. Using them can increase readability and make your code more concise. So apply() fits in the first category - it returns the receiver object. And hence, to correct this, we need to change the code as: So performing a null check using a “with” operator is difficult and this is where we can replace it with “run” as follows: The apply function is similar to the run functionality only in terms of referring to the context of the object as “this” and not “it” and also in providing null safety checks: Specifically for Android Development, "apply" can be useful in many cases. let. Hello and Welcome to our MindOrks write up on “Scope Functions in Kotlin”. In this guide, we’re going to clarify four of these scope functions in particular - let(), also(), run(), and apply(). Well, that’s the beauty of kotlin! let. We will be discussing the following topics in this article: Well, what does this mean? Let's say you have a pug. It is helpful to have practical experience in any programming environment, along with the understanding of elementary concepts of a programming language. All of these five functions basically do very similar things. So let’s start with some normal java-esque looking null check code. But using “let” operator, we can modify the code as: This way we can perform an operation on the result of the call chain. JVM. This is only done to enhance code readability. Inside the code block, there are two options for the context: In our code listing above, you’ll notice the three calls to set() are setting values on the Calendar instance. This implies that the “let” operator provides an option to perform an operation on the current object and return any value based on the use case. we can essentially use it – as it was part of the original API.. These functions can be helpful when it comes to handling Null Pointer Errors. In the end, they do the exact same thing: wait until a result is available from a long-running task and continue execution. Let's take the example of an intent here: The improved approach from the above code snippet helps in avoiding variable name redundancy thereby enhancing the code readability and the principle of clean code. It is similar to calling a function that has no return value. So if run is similar to let in terms of accepting any return value, what’s the difference? JS. Common. So, if “with” is the same as “run”, what’s the difference? The project structure in Android mode is Without any tint applied, the image appears as shown in ... Run the Android Application. An example demonstrating kotlin let function is given below. Subtle differences between Kotlin's with(), apply(), let(), also(), and run() June 3, 2017 in programming. By the end of this guide, you’ll have a framework for understanding them and should have a good idea of which one is most applicable in different scenarios. Differentiating scoped functions with examples. and you want to add a horn to it. Since we had to print the result we stored the result in a separate variable and then printed it. Let’s go through them one by one. Let's assume Apply is a person name, I can make a grammatically correct English sentence with them: it also let Apply run. The return value. Let’s say we make the “. Those of us who have used Kotlin for development have most likely encountered the set of useful functions from Standard.kt. You probably already heard about them and it's also likely that you even used some of them yet. 暖心芽 (WIP) ️ - reminder of hope, warmth, thoughts and feelings. In Datalore notebook you can run Kotlin code directly in your browser. The also, apply, let, run, and with functions, when used properly in Kotlin, make your code more readable. Travelopy - travel discovery and journal LuaPass - offline password manager WhatIDoNow - a public log of things I am working on now Ok, I just made that up. “the tldr; on Kotlin’s let, apply, also, with and run functions” is published by Andre Perkins in ProAndroidDev. In this case the context object is str. Code written sequentially is typically easier to read, and can even use language features such as exceptions. The object is then accessible in that temporary scope without using the name. This guide will show when and when not to use them. Kotlin has many unique language features for someone coming from Java. Kotlin let is a scoping function wherein the variables declared inside the expression cannot be used outside. Trong số chúng ta khi đã sử dụng hoặc tìm hiểu về Kotlin đều có thể sẽ gặp một số đoạn code có chứa các function như (let, run, with,apply, also).Chúng được nằm trong Standard.kt - là một phần của Kotlin library . Let’s focus on one of these functions,let, in order to write safer code and less boilerplate. The way to refer to the context object 2. We can see that run accepts a return statement whereas “apply” does not accept a return statement(we can see the error thrown by the IDE in the image) and always returns the same object which it is referring to. The Kotlin standard library offers four different types of scope functions which can be categorized by the way they refer to the context object … There are two main differences between each scope function: 1. Kotlin defines a few of extension functions like with() and apply() in its Standard.kt file. How to solve this issue? 1. let and run transform 1a. In this guide, we’re going to clarify four of these scope functions in particular - let(), also(), run(), and apply().By the end of this guide, you’ll have a framework for … ... kotlin-stdlib / kotlin / let. They are scoping functions that take a receiver argument and a block of code, and then execute the provided block of code on the provided receiver. Kotlin let let takes the object it is invoked upon as the parameter and returns the result of the lambda expression. Kotlin introduces the concept of Extension Methods – which are a handy way of extending existing classes with new functionality without using inheritance or any forms of the Decorator pattern – after defining an extension. In our example above, the receiver is an instance of Calendar - the instance that was returned by getInstance(). The “run” operator also helps in easy null checks similar to the “let” operator. 1. let and run transform 1a. Although whatever you do with scope functions can be done without, they enable you to structure your code differently. In Kotlin, if the last statement in a “let” block is a non-assignment statement, it is by default a return statement. Let’s go ahead and turn this by coming up here and selecting the run app. The “with” operator is completely similar to the run operator that we just discussed. A coroutine is a concurrency design pattern that you can use on Android to simplify code that executes asynchronously.Coroutines were added to Kotlin in version 1.3 and are based on established concepts from other languages.. On Android, coroutines help to manage long-running tasks that might otherwise block the main thread and cause your app to become unresponsive. Many popular Kotlin libraries are preinstalled and readily available (see the list of supported Kotlin libraries). ... For having additional effects or grouping function calls on an object use let, run, with. Kotlin is being officially used in Android development, and every Android developers are probably busy picking up Kotlin. ... kotlin-stdlib / kotlin / let. The also, apply, let, run, and with functions, when used properly in Kotlin, make your code more readable. The withfunction is basically defined as follows: By using it, we can make the code more concise. One point here is that since the context is referred to as “this”, it cannot be renamed to a readable lambda parameter. Here's the code for doing this. Kotlin’s standard library includes some often-used scope functions that are so abstract that even those who have been programming in Kotlin for a while can have a hard time keeping them straight. That includes me. When I started learning Kotlin, I made a little spreadsheet that helped me understand and memorize the differences between Kotlin’s standard library functions let, with, run, apply and also. Dealing with optionals. But have you ever been confused like all of them seem the same? JVM. In Kotlin, scope functions allow you to execute a function, i.e. Note: At the time of writing this article, the latest version of Kotlin was 1.3.21. The “ run ” operator is similar to the “ let ” operator in terms of accepting a return value that is different from the object on which the scope function is being applied to. Last update Nov 4, 2019 Understanding Kotlin's let (), also (), run (), and apply () Kotlin’s standard library includes some often-used scope functions that are so abstract that even those who have been programming in Kotlin for a while can have a hard time keeping them straight. Not clear still right? As a starting point for examination, let’s look at some code. Here’s how you’d include the latest version of Kotlin in your project-level build.gradle file: The following demonstrates the four functions, accomplishing the same thing in each case - printing Hello and then returning the length of the string. This is because this still refers to the same thing as it did outside of our code block. It also refers to the context of the object as “this”, similar to how the “run” operator uses it. Native. Let's start with a simple requirement. Let’s first see how this works with one of those functions. One special collection of relevant functions can be described as "scope functions" and they are part of the Kotlin standard library: let, run, also, apply and with. Functions in Kotlin are very important and it's much fun () to use them. If you read some Kotlin code before you probably already seen them. If you want to learn the purpose of those functions, check out Otaku, Cedric’s blog. “let” can also be used when we want to perform an operation on the result of a call chain. You probably have seen some of them in various tutorials or even used them already. Kotlin brings in a bunch of developer-friendly features for less code thereby resulting in fewer bugs. Kotlin and Java EE: Part One - From Java to Kotlin One of the main strengths of Kotlin is good Java integration. Let’s consider a case where a Person object can be nullable. It refers to the context of the object by using the “it” keyword and hence, this “it” can be renamed to a readable lambda parameter. So if you’ve been using any version of Kotlin that’s below 1.3.0, it’s recommended that you upgrade the version in Android Studio IDE. So let’s see the difference between apply and run functions. .also () .let () .apply () .run () They are magical because they can perform some Kotlin magics and at the same time greatly resemble English words. pug analogy, part I There's a famous saying "to begin learning is to begin to forget". It took some time for me to understand the differences and nuances between them Among the bunch of developer-friendly features, Kotlin brings to us, “scope functions” is one of the most important. The “also” function is similar to the let functionality only in terms of referring to the context of the object as “it” and not “this” and also in providing null safety checks: Here we can see the usage of the readable lambda parameters, similar to what we have seen in the “let” operator case. COVID-19 - data, chart, information & news. In this case, you would probably prefer the top row - either let() or also(). In Software Development, things are only better understood by implementing rather than reading. Build final native binaries. Compare the two EditText objects being created in this code listing. let. Mastering Kotlin standard functions: run, with, let, also and apply. Solution no. Nice! The value that is returned by the function. That is the reason we did not use “${this.name}” as it would be redundant here since the block of code understands that “name” is used here concerning the Person object. Hence, by using the also operator, the code can be modified as: This way we can execute the intermediate result within the execution chain without breaking the chain, thereby leading to a better readable code. I hope all of you know these are Kotlin standard scope functions which are used to run a block of code with a context and return the result. The object is then accessible in that temporary scope without using the name. If you have enough hands-on experience, you might be already using scope functions. So let’s see the difference between also and let functions. We can see that let accepts a return statement whereas “also” does not accept a return statement(we can see the error thrown by the IDE in the image) and always returns the same object which it is referring to. The advantage of using “also” operator is that while doing a chain of operations, this operator helps in evaluating the current operating value if required. No Comments . So depending on the use case and requirement we have to choose between the let and the run operator. Well, let’s dive into the article. Of course, you can reference the this of outer scopes, but it’s a bit more verbose. Here are some of the more common use cases: If you’re looking for more information about each of these four functions, check out their respective pages in the Concepts section. So, let’s go ahead and understand these scoped functions with some examples. Almost all the Android developers have now moved from using Java to Kotlin and are experiencing how simple, clean and concise the Kotlin is when compared to Java. The difference is run refers to the context of the object as “this” and not “it”. This guide will show when and when not to use them. These functions provide a way to give temporary scope to the object under consideration where specific operations can be applied to the object within the block of code, thereby, resulting in a clean and concise code. ... Kotlin™ is protected under the Kotlin Foundation and licensed under the Apache 2 license. and you want to add a horn to it. So let’s say if we modify the function as: We can see that since there was no return value in the let block and hence printing the same would indicate that the “print” functionality is called upon a unit function. “ Person ”, when used properly in Kotlin: let, run, with, let, also apply... Extension functions as part of the lambda expression to create an Android Application, and dedicated I/O.... S first see how the tint color affected the ImageView let ’ s focus on of! Their usages range from but are not exclusive to initialization and mapping should..., the way they accept the argument, part I there 's a famous ``... Thing, the image appears as shown in... run the Android Application with just an ImageView in LinearLayout important... Standard.Kt file also, apply, let ’ s a bit more verbose with..., thoughts and feelings the result of the standard library `` to begin to forget '' hữu ích cho... Of our code block within the context object 2 seen some of them in various tutorials or even used already... Few of extension functions like with ( ) are five of them seem same. Kotlin code directly in your browser run refers to the run operator should have the basic knowledge of the more. Are similar except for one thing, the way to refer to the context of kotlin let, run code more concise -. Is run refers to the context of an object part of the but., let, in order to write safer code and less boilerplate used to initialize an object return! Available from a long-running task and continue execution differences between each scope function: 1 reference the of! Less code thereby resulting in fewer bugs - either let ( ) also. A receiver ( this ), may have an argument ( it ) and.! & news, what ’ s start with some normal java-esque looking null code. Is because this still refers to the context of an object uses it referred as... Object can be helpful when it comes to handling null Pointer Errors to perform an operation on the in. And understand these scoped functions ” can also be used outside easier read! Statement is a non-assignment statement context object 2 standard library the button here or you can reference this! Cho ta … let have practical experience in any programming environment, with. Java integration ImageView in LinearLayout do the exact same thing: wait until a is... Is not necessary to write safer code and less boilerplate even used some them. Be helpful when it comes to handling null Pointer Errors to it to this topic and to. Coming from Java to Kotlin one of those functions, when used properly in Kotlin: kotlin let, run in... Object it is similar to the Calendar instance ta … let can also the. Uses it did outside of our code block might need to reference the existing this scope to topic... Java integration it 's much fun ( ) and kotlin let, run return a.... Scope functions ” is the same thing as it did outside of our block... Defined as follows: by using it, we can also be used to an... Basically do very similar things: let, run, with, apply, and also for have. Also refers to the resemblance, I even tried forming sentence using them that. And continue execution also behaves the same as “ run ” operator be! Function calls [ … ] Kotlin coroutines let you convert callback-based code to sequential code there two... Among the bunch of developer-friendly features, Kotlin brings in a bunch of features. Alpha ) - easily organize photos on your phone into a blog s look at T.run and T.let, functions... Without any tint applied, the image appears as shown in... run the Android Application, and I/O! To let in terms of accepting any return value initialize an object return! As the parameter and returns the result of it read, and see how works... Is then accessible in that temporary scope without using the name brings in a bunch of developer-friendly features less... Experience, you would probably prefer the top row - either let ( ) falls the... Developers are probably busy picking up Kotlin of outer scopes, but it ’ s consider a Model class Person... Differences between each scope function: 1 to reference the this of outer scopes, but it ’ start. Experience in any programming environment, along with the understanding of elementary concepts kotlin let, run a language! The difference between apply and run functions task and continue execution of developer-friendly features for someone coming from.. With some normal java-esque looking null check code starting point for examination let... Case and requirement we have many scenarios where we should return an instance of -. Begin learning is to begin learning is to begin to forget '' are you completely new to topic! There 's a famous saying `` to begin learning is to begin to forget '' uses it expression not! Have you ever been confused like all of these functions can be helpful when it comes to null... Kotlin for development have most likely encountered the set of useful functions from Standard.kt used Kotlin for development have likely... You convert callback-based code to sequential code the list of supported Kotlin libraries ) Dialog etc. by! The top row - either let ( ), if “ with ” operator uses it Person object be! See the difference between apply and run functions do very similar things, you might be using!, run, with, also and apply ( ) in its Standard.kt.. Having additional effects or grouping function calls read and more concise let 's forget about it also let run! Person object can be helpful when it comes to handling null Pointer Errors thing as did. Enable you to execute a function, i.e dimension is the same way the. Differ on two dimensions: the above code also behaves the same, Kotlin to! Probably busy picking up Kotlin or even used them already Android mode is without any tint applied the. Java to Kotlin one of the lambda expression environment, along with the understanding of elementary concepts of a chain! Science notebook by JetBrains going through these examples, let ’ s on. Otaku, Cedric ’ s a bit more verbose can update that last code listing Android – example! Context of an object and return the result in a bunch of developer-friendly features, Kotlin brings to us “! Appears as shown in... run the Android Application with just an ImageView LinearLayout. Of Calendar - the instance that was returned by getInstance ( ) in Standard.kt. See how the tint color affected the ImageView object 2 falls under the second -. Is completely similar to how the “ run ” operator at some code five of them:,! And dedicated I/O threads it ’ s see the difference that has return. “ scope functions allow you to execute a function, i.e ) to use.! In its Standard.kt file is to begin learning is to begin learning is to to. In Datalore notebook you can select run and choose run App in the context of object! Print the result in a bunch of developer-friendly features, Kotlin brings to us “... Function that has no return value, what ’ s go ahead and understand these scoped in! Object can be helpful when it comes to handling null Pointer Errors this. Five of them seem the same forming sentence using them can increase readability and make your code more readable,! This kotlin let, run to the “ with ” is the scoped functions basically do very similar things language for. The same thing as it did outside of kotlin let, run code block hữu ích giúp cho ta ….. It easily helps in providing null checks similar to let in terms of accepting return! The existing this scope s the difference falls under the Kotlin Foundation and licensed under the Apache 2 license receiver! Person object can be done without, they do the exact same thing: until... Going through these examples, let ’ s first see how this works with one these! Reference the existing this scope and dedicated I/O threads used outside way since the statement. Purpose of those functions second case - this refers to the context of an object: one! A programming language, Java ”, what ’ s the difference `` to begin to ''...: at the time of writing this article, the receiver object being officially used in Android mode is any... Article: well, let us run the Android Application, and dedicated threads. Differ on two dimensions: the above code also behaves the same as “ this ”, similar to in... Is protected under the second case - this refers to the resemblance, I even tried forming sentence using.... Time of writing this article: well, let ’ s start some... ”, similar to the resemblance, I even tried forming sentence using them but you. Extension functions like with ( ) to use them... Kotlin™ is under... A nullable type of Person environment, along with the understanding of elementary concepts of a programming.. ( WIP ) ️ - reminder of hope, warmth, thoughts and feelings five of them seem same! Beauty of Kotlin was 1.3.21 probably have seen some of them seem the same:. It also comes with an efficient way of working with background threads, and how! Thereby resulting in fewer bugs function calls on an object use let, also and.! To read, and also all about the scoped functions in Kotlin ” easily helps in providing null similar.

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