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The causes of ADHD aren't clear.  However, zinc supplementation may reduce the minimum effective dose of amphetamine when it is used with amphetamine for the treatment of ADHD.  ADHD stimulants also improve persistence and task performance in children with ADHD.  One study from Denmark found an increased risk of death among those with ADHD due to the increased rate of accidents. , ADHD is divided into three primary subtypes: predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-PH or ADHD-HI), and combined type (ADHD-C).. C. Several inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are present in two or more settings (e.g., at home, school, or work; with friends or relatives; in other activities). ", "Recent advances in understanding of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): how genetics are shaping our conceptualization of this disorder", "The evolution of hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive diversity", "Lead and PCBs as risk factors for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "What causes attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Engaging videos, books & resources. Some individuals with ADHD also display difficulty regulating emotions or problems with executive function.  Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.  It is believed to involve interactions between genetics, the environment, and social factors. Read about 3 common types of ADHD for adults and children.  In a minority of children, intolerances or allergies to certain foods may worsen ADHD symptoms.  This is believed to be primarily due to changes in how the condition is diagnosed and how readily people are willing to treat it with medications rather than a true change in how common the condition is.  There is a small amount of evidence that lower tissue zinc levels may be associated with ADHD. The DRD4–7R mutation results in a wide range of behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD symptoms reflecting split attention. , Reviews of ADHD biomarkers have noted that platelet monoamine oxidase expression, urinary norepinephrine, urinary MHPG, and urinary phenethylamine levels consistently differ between ADHD individuals and healthy control. , Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the precise cause or causes are unknown in the majority of cases.  There are no good studies comparing the various medications; however, they appear more or less equal with respect to side effects. [unreliable medical source], ADHD controversies include concerns about its existence as a disorder, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD.  Many with ADHD also have associated learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, which contributes to their difficulties.  Symptoms of hyperactivity tend to go away with age and turn into "inner restlessness" in teens and adults with ADHD. The stereotype associated with ADHD and impulsivity is that of an adult who acts a lot like a hummingbird, flitting from one flower to the next without being able to stop.  Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder in children and adults, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated. , Arousal is related to dopaminergic functioning, and ADHD presents with low dopaminergic functioning. People with ADHD may find it more difficult than others to focus on and complete tasks such as schoolwork. , Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems, particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine. , Quotations related to Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at Wikiquote, "ADD", "ADHD", and "Hyperactive" redirect here. For a more detailed list of common attentive ADHD behaviors, click here. , Whereas teachers and caregivers responsible for children are often attuned to the symptoms of ADHD, employers and others who interact with adults are less likely to regard such behaviors as a symptom. Up to 80% of adults may have some form of psychiatric comorbidity such as depression or anxiety. ADHD is one of the common mental disorders that can affect adults and children.  Exercise, sufficient sleep and nutritious food are also known to have a positive effect. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype showed a significantly higher frequency in females, while the inattentive subtype was more frequent in males. , Difficulties managing anger are more common in children with ADHD as are poor handwriting and delays in speech, language and motor development.  While the core symptoms of ADHD are similar in children and adults they often present differently in adults than in children, for example excessive physical activity seen in children may present as feelings of restlessness and constant mental activity in adults.  Some have hypothesized that some women may be more attracted to males who are risk takers, increasing the frequency of genes that predispose to hyperactivity and impulsivity in the gene pool. , Studies of adults suggest that negative differences in intelligence are not meaningful and may be explained by associated health problems.. ", "Heritability of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults", "Trace Amine-Associated Receptors as Emerging Therapeutic Targets: TABLE 1", "Toward a better understanding of ADHD: LPHN3 gene variants and the susceptibility to develop ADHD", "ADHD and the DRD4 exon III 7-repeat polymorphism: an international meta-analysis", "Genetics of ADHD: What Should the Clinician Know?  Inter-hemispheric asymmetries in white matter tracts have also been noted in children with ADHD, suggesting that disruptions in temporal integration may be related to the behavioral characteristics of ADHD. TotallyADD is dedicated to helping adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD – we use the acronyms interchangeably) and those affected by it, (family, employers, health professionals, etc.)  It affects about 5–7% of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1–2% when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. People with attention deficits are prone to having difficulty processing verbal and nonverbal language which can negatively affect social interaction. Many experts consider impulsivity (and associated intolerance of delay) to be the most significant source of problems for adolescents and adults with ADHD. Always Going, Going, Going.  In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance. However, smaller studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms in genes related to catecholaminergic neurotransmission or the SNARE complex of the synapse can reliably predict a person's response to stimulant medication. , People with ADHD of all ages are more likely to have problems with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The difficulties generated by these deficiencies can range from moderate to extreme, resulting in the inability to effectively structure their lives, plan daily tasks, or think of and act accordingly even when aware of potential consequences.  In studies of ADHD, higher IQs may be over represented because many studies exclude individuals who have lower IQs despite those with ADHD scoring on average nine points lower on standardized intelligence measures. What Causes Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD?  Long-term misuse of stimulant medications at doses above the therapeutic range for ADHD treatment is associated with addiction and dependence. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, or excessive activity and impulsivity, which are otherwise not appropriate for a person's age.  It does not appear to be related to the style of parenting or discipline. , In a 2004 study it was estimated that the yearly income discrepancy for adults with ADHD was $10,791 less per year than high school graduate counterparts and $4,334 lower for college graduate counterparts. , Some ADHD symptoms in adults differ from those seen in children.  The criteria for an executive function deficit are met in 30–50% of children and adolescents with ADHD.  Electroencephalography (EEG) is not accurate enough to make the diagnosis.  Other areas of controversy include the use of stimulant medications in children, the method of diagnosis, and the possibility of overdiagnosis. Hyperactivity is treatable. ", "ADHD in Adults: Are the current Diagnostic Criteria Adequate?  This requires at least 6 symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity for those under 17 and at least 5 for those 17 years or older.  The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other conditions, as well as from high levels of activity within the range of normal behavior. , Previously it was thought that the elevated number of dopamine transporters in people with ADHD was part of the pathophysiology but it appears that the elevated numbers are due to adaptation to exposure to stimulants. , Training in social skills, behavioral modification and medication may have some limited beneficial effects.  Research has shown that, alongside medication, psychological interventions in adults can be effective in reducing symptomatic deficiencies.  The 7 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4–7R) causes increased inhibitory effects induced by dopamine and is associated with ADHD. Scientists say it is due in large part to genes that are passed down from parent to child. On this basis they estimated the adult ADHD proportion of the population to average 3.5 percent with a range of 1.2 to 7.3 percent, with a significantly lower prevalence in low-income countries (1.9%) compared to high-income countries (4.2%). Genetic factors are presumed important, and it has been suggested that environmental factors may affect how symptoms manifest..  Careful monitoring of children while taking this medication is recommended. , In 1934, Benzedrine became the first amphetamine medication approved for use in the United States.  Stimulants may also reduce the risk of unintentional injuries in children with ADHD.  He noted both nature and nurture could be influencing this disorder.  Atomoxetine, due to its lack of addiction liability, may be preferred in those who are at risk of recreational or compulsive stimulant use. , Having ADHD symptoms since childhood is usually required to be diagnosed with adult ADHD. They are often perceived by others as chaotic, with a tendency to need high stimulation to be less distracted and function effectively. homework, chores, etc.  As of 2019, it was estimated to affect 84.7 million people globally.  Obstructive sleep apnea can also cause ADHD-type symptoms. Some individuals with ADHD also display difficulty regulating emotions or problems with executive function. WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari, MD on September 18, 2020  Although it causes significant difficulty, many children with ADHD have an attention span equal to or better than that of other children for tasks and subjects they find interesting..  About 30–50% of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2–5% of adults have the condition. Classification depends on the relative contribution of each feature. The learning potential and overall intelligence of an adult with ADHD, however, are no different from the potential and intelligence of adults who do not have the disorder.  This effect has been seen across a number of countries. The DSM-5, or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2013 edition, defines three types of ADHD: To meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, an individual must display: The symptoms (see below) were required to have been present since before the individual was seven years old, and must have interfered with at least two spheres of his or her functioning (at home and at school or work, for example) over the last six months. Call. The characteristics are more internal and less obvious to the casual observer. [non-primary source needed][non-primary source needed] It has been estimated that 5% of the global population has ADHD (including cases not yet diagnosed).  People with ADHD appear to have unimpaired long-term memory, and deficits in long-term recall appear to be attributed to impairments in working memory.  There is little evidence on the effects of medication on social behaviors. To be diagnosable as Hyperactive/Impulsive ADHD (or combined with Inattentive ADHD) the adult MUST have been impaired by some of the Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms (listed in the DSM V) prior to age 12, AND for the last 6 months has been impaired often in two or more settings by at least 5 of the 9 symptoms, AND these symptoms cannot be better accounted for by some other mental health …  Specifically, adults with ADHD present with persistent difficulties in following directions, remembering information, concentrating, organizing tasks, completing work within specified time frames and appearing timely in appointments.  One study found that 80% of individuals with ADHD were impaired in at least one executive function task, compared to 50% for individuals without ADHD. , There is little high quality research on the effectiveness of family therapy for ADHD, but the evidence that exists shows that it is similar to community care and better than placebo. Home; Services. Girls with ADHD tend to display fewer hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms but more symptoms pertaining to inattention and distractibility. The United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends use for children only in severe cases, though for adults medication is a first-line treatment. , The long-term effects of ADHD medication have yet to be fully determined, although stimulants are generally beneficial and safe for up to 2 years.  Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplementation was found by a 2018 review to not improve ADHD outcomes. reduced risk of accidents) have been found across multiple domains.  The dopamine and norepinephrine pathways that originate in the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus project to diverse regions of the brain and govern a variety of cognitive processes. It is also approved for ADHD by the US Food and Drug Administration.  It may be viewed as the extreme end of one or more continuous human traits found in all people.  In the absence of a demonstrated zinc deficiency (which is rare outside of developing countries), zinc supplementation is not recommended as treatment for ADHD. ", "Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk of ADHD", "An Association Between Prenatal Acetaminophen Use and ADHD: The Benefits of Large Data Sets", "The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Restriction and elimination diets in ADHD treatment", "Relative age and ADHD symptoms, diagnosis and medication: a systematic review", " Stimulants for ADHD in children: Revisited | Therapeutics Initiative", "Mental health of children and adolescents", "Facts, values, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an update on the controversies", "New perspectives on catecholaminergic regulation of executive circuits: evidence for independent modulation of prefrontal functions by midbrain dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons", "Large-scale brain systems in ADHD: beyond the prefrontal-striatal model", "Toward systems neuroscience of ADHD: a meta-analysis of 55 fMRI studies", "Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: a cross-sectional mega-analysis", "Hemispheric brain asymmetry differences in youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD", "Validating neuropsychological subtypes of ADHD: how do children with and without an executive function deficit differ? 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