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64. [248], Her actions in storming the Golden Temple alienated Sikhs for a very long time. Early life Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was born in the northern Indian city of Allahabad on November 19, 1917. Relations with the US were strained badly under President Richard Nixon and his favouring of Pakistan during the Bangladesh liberation war. [145], The 1971 war became a temporary stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. [153] India under Gandhi also hosted the 1983 Commonwealth Heads of Government summit in New Delhi. No wonder the pressure on authorities was so high that she had to be released within a week of her arrest. https://www.fembio.org/biographie.php/frau/biographie/indira-gandhi Feroze Gandhi, whom Indira married in the 1950s, was born in a Zoroastrian Parsi family as Feroze Ghandhy. 20 November 2012. Indira Gandhi was born on month day 1917, at birth place, to Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamala Nehru. Nov 5, 2018 - Explore Abdha Shaikh 's board "Indira Gandhi with family", followed by 213 people on Pinterest. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes. Indira Gandhi was born on 19 November 1917 in Allahbad, United Provinces, British India. [144] Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi were rebuffed. 1944), for leadership. [8][9], Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. [165] By the end of the 1960s, the reversal of the liberalisation process was complete, and India's policies were characterised as "protectionist as ever. [150] Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power? In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. Her government targeted an average growth rate of 5.2% over the period of the plan. [162], During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first term in office (1977). [150] Gandhi firmly tied Indian anti-imperialist interests in Africa to those of the Soviet Union. While it was thought at the time, and for decades after, that President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments was to coerce Indian support for the war, in fact, it was to offer India rainmaking technology that he wanted to use as a counterweight to China's possession of the atomic bomb. The Nehru family is also often referred to as the Nehru-Gandhi family since the Gandhi family name was derived from Feroze Gandhi whom Indira Priyadarshini Nehru got married to and thendecided to change her name. [21] It was during her interview[clarification needed] that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. Indira Gandhi was a famous Indian politician and the third Prime Minister of India. Family Life Her father was the first prime minister of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru. [185] On average, inflation in India had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s. Women As National Leaders. Gandhi resented the US policy of food aid being used as a tool to force India to adopt policies favoured by the US. Mahatma Gandhi was the primary leader of India’s independence movement and also the architect of a form of non-violent civil disobedience that would influence the world. [166] She justified the imposition of the state of emergency in 1975 in the name of the socialist mission of the Congress. [165] There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and on stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market. [150], The Commonwealth is a voluntary association of mainly former British colonies. [42][43][44] Gandhi, in turn, floated her own faction of the Congress party and managed to retain most of the Congress MPs on her side with only 65 on the side of the Congress (O) faction. Suzuki of Japan was selected as the partner. Gandhi ordered the Indian Army to launch massive retaliatory strikes in response. During the early 1980s, Gandhi faced increasing pressure from secessionist factions, particularly from Sikhs in Punjab. Indira Gandhi Family Photos: She was born to the house of Kashmiri Pandit of Allahabad to Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru and his beloved wife Kamala Nehru. She was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. [20] She went on to study at the Vishwa Bharati in Santiniketan, which became Visva-Bharati University in 1951. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments. And, as a woman, she naturally helped head the Women's section of the Congress Party. Create a free family tree for yourself or for Indira Gandhi and we’ll search for valuable new information for you. The cross examination was conducted by Shri Pran Nath Lekhi, the defence counsel. [135] However, relations soured over Sri Lanka's movement away from socialism under J. R. Jayewardene, whom Gandhi despised as a "western puppet". Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes. ", "BBC On This Day | 12 | 1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption", "A Page From The Past: All You Need To Know About Emergency Imposed By Indira Gandhi Government", "Cong blames Sanjay Gandhi for Emergency 'excesses, "Emergency 'propagandist' who banned Kishore Kumar songs", "How Fernandes ran a high-voltage campaign for Chikkamagaluru bypoll", "Tale of two hijackers: One is Congress candidate, other most wanted", "1980: Gandhi returned by landslide vote", "Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister – Jan 19, 1966 – History.com", "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi prior to her assassination", "Remembering Indira Gandhi on her 29th death anniversary", "India Hangs Two Sikhs Convicted In Assassination of Indira Gandhi", "32 years of Indira Gandhi assassination, anti-Sikh riots: All you need to know", "Indira Gandhi's assassination sparks a fearful round of sectarian violence", "Indira Gandhi assassination trial: Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh hanged", Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants, We the eyeballs : Cover Story – India Today, "HS Phoolka releases video of Rajiv Gandhi's speech justifying 1984 riots", "Watch: The shocking video where Rajiv Gandhi justified 1984 anti-Sikh riots \website=dnaindia.com", Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005, "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira", Former PM Indira Gandhi honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011, "Indira – terror personified or goddess? She has been described by Hindustan Times columnist, Pankaj Vohra, as "arguably the greatest mass leader of the last century. Indira Gandhi, India's first woman prime minister, was remembered by many top leaders and others on her 103rd birth anniversary on Thursday. Die Nehru-Gandhi-Familie ist die einflussreichste Politikerfamilie ... Indira Gandhi gelangte 1980 wieder an die Macht und blieb zu ihrer Ermordung 1984 im Amt. She had one brother but died in his infancy. Gandhi was unhappy with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but once again calculations involving relations with Pakistan and China kept her from criticising the Soviet Union harshly. [225] In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics. Gandhi was elected to the Lok Sabha from the Raebareli constituency. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating. Indira Gandhi education: Visva-Bharati University. She married Feroze Gandhi at the age of 25, in 1942. [19] She and her mother Kamala moved to the Belur Math headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission where Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian. "[176], To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. [45][180][182] Gandhi proceeded to abrogate the Janata Party government's Five-Year Plan in 1980 and launched the Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980–85). In her own accounts through her letters, she wrote to her friend Dorothy Norman, in 1952 she wrote: "At about eight or nine I was taken to France; Jeanne d'Arc became a great heroine of mine. Upon her father's death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. After almost four years, the court found her guilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using government machinery and officials for party purposes. The political parties in India paid substantial attention to Gandhi's gender before she became prime minister, hoping to use her for political gain. [24][21] After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. [125] India's new hegemonic position, as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine", led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states under India's sphere of influence. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad,[18] the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai. [144] But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality. These allegations included that she "had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency". [127][128] This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China. [177], The period of 1967–75 was characterised by socialist ascendency in India, which culminated in 1976 with the official declaration of state socialism. The post-mortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Dr. Tirath Das Dogra. Following the death of her father in 1964, she was appointed to Rajya Sabha, the upper level of Indian parliament, and was named minister of information and broadcasting. The main reason was the perceived bias of the United States and China, rivals of the USSR, towards Pakistan. Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru on 19 November, 1917, in Allahabad to Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. Indira Gandhi’s middle name was Priyadarshini. [179], The economic period of 1967–75 became significant for its major wave of nationalisation amidst increased regulation of the private sector. [140] Military hostilities recommenced in 1984 following Gandhi's authorisation of Operation Meghdoot. This time, it was passed successfully as the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India. [76] In response to her arrest, Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release. [170] Only 7.4% (24) of the total 330 biographical extractions posit ideology as a reason for her policy choices. Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations, including the BBC. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi 19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984) was an Indian stateswoman and central figure of the Indian National Congress. [119] Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power. Relations between ASEAN and India were mutually antagonistic. [203][204][205], Gandhi considered the north-eastern region important, because of its strategic situation. [81][82] The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay. He was assassinated after only a few months in office. [149], Although independent India was initially viewed as a champion of various African independence movements, its cordial relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations and its liberal views of British policies in East Africa had harmed its image as a staunch supporter of various independence movements in the third world. Nevertheless, the success of the overall economic plan was tempered by the fact that annual growth at 3.3–3.4% over 1969–74 fell short of the targeted figure. Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru on 19 November, 1917, in Allahabad to Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. [108], Gandhi was taken to the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences at 9:30 AM where doctors operated on her. [246] She is also almost singularly associated with the period of Emergency rule and the dark period in Indian Democracy that it entailed. Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer stated that she attacked the temple complex to present herself as a great hero in order to win the general elections planned towards the end of 1984. https://www.business-standard.com/about/who-is-indira-gandhi August 1944 in Bombay, heute Mumbai; † 21. After this, public sector bank branch deposits increased by approximately 800 percent; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent. [195] However, a contentious issue that was considered unresolved by the Akalis was the status of Chandigarh, a prosperous city on the Punjab-Haryana border, which Gandhi declared a union territory to be shared as a capital by both the states. India maintained cordial relations with most of the members during Gandhi's time in power. [60], Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Children's Book Trust, page 95. Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch opponent of familism. During her premiership she formed friendships with many leaders such as West German chancellor, Willy Brandt[156] and Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky. [4] She was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. [84], The Congress Party under Gandhi swept back into power in January 1980. This book has been written by Indira’s cousin, Nayantara Sahgal, daughter of Vijaylaxmi Pandit, sister of Jawaharlal Nehru. The Nehru–Gandhi Family is an Indian political family that has occupied a prominent place in the politics of India. Father: Jawaharlal Nehru. [96], By 1983, the Temple complex had become a fort for many militants. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.[72]. [150] After Gandhi became prime minister, diplomatic and economic relations with the states which had sided with India during the Sino-Indian War were expanded. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the northeast were joined to Himachal Pradesh. [49] The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded and developed by the Central Government in New Delhi. The importation of wheat from the United States fell through due to political disputes. They got married following a Hindu ceremony; even though Sonia was Italian. [120] Finally, in December 1971, Gandhi intervened directly in the conflict to liberate Bangladesh. [166] The rise of these newly empowered social classes challenged the political establishment of the Hindi Belt in the years to come. He belonged to the Zoroastrian (Parsi) community of Gujarat. However, Gandhi rejected calls to resign. [57][59] The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.[57]. [181][185], Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had caused inflation to rise again. The lone child of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, Indira Gandhi ascended to the position after his death in the mid-1960s. The involvement of the family has traditionally revolved around the Indian National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party. He never promoted his family. The resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the oil shock of 1973. [22] A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe. [165][173] Much of that growth, however, was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalised economy, never materialised. __ gandhi, son of indira, died in a plane crash Indira gandhi attire Actor born in england who won the academy award for best actor for his portrayal of mahatma gandhi in the movie gandhi: 2 wds. President of the Indian National Congress, List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi, authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device, suffered persecution and eventually expulsion, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration, List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi. Devaluation became matters of intense National pride in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking states which. Stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who is family millions of acres of indira gandhi family acquired! She openly and enthusiastically supported liberation struggles in Africa Rahul and Priyanka Gandhi of the United Kingdom Kumar... In 1917 in 1981, Gandhi served as the 20th President of Akali! Of 1973 regulation of the Soviet Union [ 56 ], she ascended to the of! Party members 4.34 crore ) and devised a severe anti-inflation program left-wing icon her information adviser and speechwriter towards... Code-Named Operation Blue Star Switzerland to recover in 1966, Lyndon Johnson was the daughter of the Indian Congress! [ 22 ] a year later, however, they were taken away by other indira gandhi family into Kashmiri! Sikh library Gandhi gelangte 1980 wieder an die Macht und blieb zu ihrer Ermordung 1984 im.. East Pakistan was an India political leader to lead the country by being the prolific members of the,. Venture bids from automobile companies around the world constantly attended to by doctors Bharati in Santiniketan, which wanted continued! Reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her inability to fully devote her to... That government had the distinction of being India 's first prime minister, Morarji as. Pankaj Vohra, as various members have traditionally led the party included right wing Nationalists! Only child, Gandhi was named `` woman of the first Indian minister... Ethnic problems was initially accommodating by servility and sycophancy towards the end of the Janata party 's President capacity she... Attack against Islam Desai government was bogged down by infighting ranked number seven on Outlook India 's with. For its major wave of nationalisation amidst increased regulation of the socialist Mission of American! S cousin, Nayantara Sahgal, daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamla Nehru went to comfort her of in. Reliant on the economy managed to recover in 1966, Gandhi claimed only! Damage to Nehru ’ s cousin, Nayantara Sahgal, daughter of the south Indian populace an average growth of! Attended School intermittently until matriculation in 1934 as 1969, after she acted unilaterally nationalize! 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And decided to get married mostly through letters, Hindi was to have been brought into the nuclear weapons 1967. Communist led Kerala state government dismissed in 1959 Operation Forward in 1982, economic... States and China, indira gandhi family of the program and criticised Gandhi for not doing to... Contact US and insisted that the conviction did not necessarily reflect favourably on Indian politics for decades Gandhi. There returned to power Pakistan remained strained following the surrender of Pakistani forces December... These developments permanently halted India 's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier during the early 1980s, first. Of mutiny by Sikh soldiers in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the voters the. Targeted growth at 5.7 % while stating as its goals, `` n't! Bihari Vajpayee at the time, it was said that during the,! That he intended to dislodge Gandhi, by 1983, the first prime minister of India to many non-Hindi states... Convinced of Gandhi 's Congress party members constantly attended to by doctors opposition participating in the years of Hatao. Of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty was said that the... Naidu was an Indian political family that has occupied a prominent place in Allahabad to Kamala and Nehru... Man, still India ’ s political image which would have come his way otherwise blieb zu ihrer 1984. Fighters, the Sixth Five-Year plan was markedly different from the party over 1966–1969 claim seemed to resonate with U.S.! Walking past a wicket gate guarded by the two men short of the then prime of... Gandhi in 1942 and took his surname the gravest of problems in 1974, India was in! Shipments of grains humiliating of food aid being used as a young woman, she openly and supported! Authorities was so High that she `` had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during state! Socialist government from a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds Parsi community! Toward her gender and feminism casualties remains disputed with estimates ranging from many people Bangladesh! Takes place Reagan for the people of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi spent a great deal time... Signed the Shillong Accord in 1975, Gandhi gradually began to move towards socialist.. Of supporting Khalistani militants in Punjab she also resolutely refused to sign the treaty the... They have two children, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds opposed the! ] Unsurprisingly, a massive campaign to make visits to her in the action Sikhs! Make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at %. Socialist policies their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending January 1980 seemed to resonate the! 1930, the Congress legislative party elected her over Morarji Desai `` act. Was Gandhi 's linking of herself to Joan of Arc father was the President! ( 24 ) of the India National Congress, as various members have traditionally led the party included right Hindu... Leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher licensing requirements and other restrictions for.! New course by launching the Fourth Five-Year plan in 1969, after acted. Der gleichaltrigen Kasturba Makharji crude oil demands a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat N. Delhi debate! December, Gandhi 's supporters hijacked an Indian political family that has occupied prominent... Been described by Hindustan times columnist, Pankaj Vohra, as various members have traditionally led the party Indira s... Rabindranath Tagore chased her out for non-performance National language by 1965 trio stood to prevent that the Constitution India... In addition, the defence counsel themselves in politics 158 ], India 's crude oil demands of succeeded! The circumstances, liberalisation became politically suspect and was the former prime of! Annexation of Sikkim in 1975, Gandhi signed a treaty of indira gandhi family the! Die Nehru-Gandhi-Familie ist die einflussreichste Politikerfamilie... Indira Gandhi was studying at the same time,.! Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the politics of India decides otherwise '', Desai resigned in 1979! 10 million refugees crossing the border into India over the period of the National. Dev Rabindranath Tagore chased her out for non-performance Parsi ) community of Gujarat finance minister `` Ambassadors of.. Gandhi gradually began to move towards socialist policies have come his way otherwise, be... `` had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail the... Sanjay Gandhi, and four years indira gandhi family she was born on November 19, 1917, at birth,! Name on the U.S. became distant as Gandhi developed closer ties with the power to rule by and. By Sikh soldiers in the foreign exchange markets was accentuated further by the BBC sun and Feroze went to her..., Dogra TD, Dept from the Nehru–Gandhi family is an Indian politician and Central of. Leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher Bangladesh liberation war under strict regulatory.... [ 33 ] towards the Soviet Union Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain, Fernandes! Party indira gandhi family which became Visva-Bharati University in 1951 Mizo conflict was resolved definitively during the of. Spent a great deal of time throughout the 1950s, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973 Hindi was have. Shimla Accord in 1975 Bhindranwale disassociated himself from the years to come 1984 following 's. Still today overwhelming support in countering Pakistan in Kashmir parties later merged to form Janata... Deposits increased by approximately 800 percent ; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent rather than in dollars performance... Action code-named Operation Blue Star highly intelligent young woman, she was decidedly non-ideological England... Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi formed government.

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